安徽快3

邦永PM2項目管理軟件在系統集成行業中的全面應用

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云南亞太環保PM2運用案例

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論軟件項目管理中質量控制模型的應用研究

 

摘要: 從“質量”概念中所涵蓋的兩大要素(質量的相對性、質量的經濟性)出發,系統論述了軟件質量管理的重要性。結合軟件組織能力進程的成熟度模型(CMM)列舉出兩種質量管理控制模型:一種是匯聚控制模型;另一種是反饋式控制模型。通過建立控制模型使管理者在質量管理中運用科學的方法令其各項決策行之有效,盡量避免管理中的非理性因素。同時,分析了在匯聚式模型中,根據CMM成熟度劃分的不同企業應用中的不同表現。并且具體就如何建立反饋式控制模型,引入展開了頭腦風暴法。通過合理的應用質量管理模型,我們將使軟件項目管理變得有效而實際。
關鍵詞: 質量相對性;質量管理;成熟度模型;匯聚控制模型;反饋式控制模型;頭腦風暴法
近年來中國的軟件業蓬勃發展,頗有星星之火可以燎原之勢。然而在眾多企業不斷引進新技術的同時,軟件業的管理理念卻相對滯后,類似手工作坊模式的生產模式依舊,“軟件工廠”成了可望而不可及的目標。針對于此,企業對高級軟件項目經理人求賢若渴,試圖改進其內部落后的管理模式。在一些成功的軟件項目調查中顯示,有效的軟件質量管理在項目中起了至關重要的作用,甚至對企業管理、企業文化也產生了深遠的影響。

一、質量概念中的兩大要素
著名美國質量管理專家Philip B.Crosby于1961年提出了“零缺陷”的概念,并被稱之“質量革命”。1979年他出版了《Quality is e》一書,闡述了他的新的質量管理思想,并認為“質量就是符合需求”。經過近幾十年軟件開發思想的積累,關于質量的概念不斷深入,Crosby的質量定義用更為精確與更具實際操作性的方式表示就是:質量是相對于某個(某些)人而言的價值。此定義明確提出了質量的相對性,也明確了質量不能脫離人而抽象存在的性質。這些進步對于我們正視軟件開發中實際發生的質量問題是非常重要的。

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ER、RUANJIANZHILIANGGUANLIHERUANJIANGUOCHENGNENGLICHENGSHUDUMOXING

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(1)CHUSHICENGCI。GAICENGCITEZHENG:WUXUDE;CHENGBENFEIYONG、JINDUJIZHILIANGJUNBUKEDULIANG、WUZHILIANGGUANLI。

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SAN、ZHILIANGGUANLIZHONGDELIANGZHONGKONGZHIMOSHI

1.HUIJUKONGZHIMOXING

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2.FANKUISHIKONGZHIMOXING

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根據此作用圖同時可以轉換成一整套方程組,可以建立一個相應的數學模型。方法如下:先將每個箭頭替換成一個等號,如果某個節點至少被一個箭頭所指向,就可以建立一個方程,而對應于該節點的測量數量將被放在方程的左側。
例如:相對進展=F()其含義便是,相對進展取決于某些其他的測量數值,其中每一個數值對應于某個指向該節點箭頭的起始節點。由圖可以得出:相對進展=F(已完成的生產性工作量,待完成的工作量)。

在作用圖中,帶黑色圓點的箭頭表示這些作用是逆向變化的,用數學運算表示,如減法和除法。如圖可以得出:函數F是一個減法運算:相對進展=已完成的生產性工作量一待完成的工作量。
另外,為了確定方程的具體形式,還須進行一些實際測量,并進行相應的估算。當將所有關系的符號進行了如上轉換之后,就可以得到一組方程組,而這些方程組也就相應描述了作用圖所代表的系統狀況。值得注意的是,這些方程組有時是線性的,而有時是非線性的,而非線性就是導致質量管理發生偏差的罪魁禍首。然而有很多軟件項目管理者會常常忽視反饋式控制模型中的非線性因素。在現實中還有許多外界的因素干擾,以至于模型中線性的成分在大多數情況下只是一個理想狀態。再以上圖為例,“相對進展”由“完成的富有成果性工作”和“待完成的工作量”兩個因素所決定。然而到達某一個時間點(臨界點),“待完成的工作量”越多就越會影響到“完成富有成果性的工作”,從而再間接影響到“相對進展”。(資料來源:項目管理者聯盟)

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